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She was surprised to find a peculiar stitching pattern in the seam of one long side of the Shroud, where a three-inch wide strip of the same original fabric was sewn onto a larger segment.
Part of the metal storage case melted and fell on the cloth, leaving burns, and efforts to extinguish the fire left water stains. In 1534, nuns sewed patches over the fire-damaged areas and attached a full-size support cloth to the back of the Shroud. The Shroud was moved to Turin in 1578, where it remains to this day.The spectra produce a profile of the sample, a distinctive molecular fingerprint that can be used to identify its components.Raman Spectroscopy uses the light scattered off of a sample as opposed to the light absorbed by a sample.A linen produced in 1260 AD would have retained about 37% of its vanillin in 1978...The Holland cloth, and all other medieval linens gave the test [i.e.
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Dyeing was probably done intentionally on pristine replacement material to match the color of the older, sepia-colored cloth." "The dye found on the radiocarbon sample was not used in Europe before about 1291 AD and was not common until more than 100 years later." "Specifically, the color and distribution of the coating implies that repairs were made at an unknown time with foreign linen dyed to match the older original material." "The consequence of this conclusion is that the radiocarbon sample was not representative of the original cloth." "The combined evidence from chemical kinetics, analytical chemistry, cotton content, and pyrolysis-mass-spectrometry proves that the material from the radiocarbon area of the shroud is significantly different from that of the main cloth. John Jackson and Propp in 1998, which replicated the famous Fire of 1532, demonstrated that the fire added carbon isotopes to the linen. Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 23, Issue 1, Pages 109-121. They comprise three tests; two chemical and one mechanical.